Cutting tools are available in three basic material types: high-speed steel, tungsten
carbide, and ceramic. High-speed steel is generally used on aluminum and other
nonferrous alloys, while tungsten carbide is used on high-silicon aluminums, steels,
stainless steels, and exotic metals. Ceramic inserts are used on hard steels and exotic
metals. Inserted carbide tooling is becoming the preferred tooling for many CNC
applications. For the full utilization of CNC machines it is essential to pay due attention
to the selection and usage of tooling, namely tool holders, cutting tools and work holding
devices. The tools for CNC machines must be quickly changeable to reduce non-cutting
time, preset and reset outside the machine, high degree of interchangeability, increased
reliability and high rigidity.52
CNC Machines The cutting tools can be classified on the basis of setting up of tool, tool construction
and cutting tool material :
On the Basis of Setting up of Cutting Tool
(a) Preset tools.
(b) Qualified tools.
(c) Semi qualified tools.
On the Basis of Cutting Tool Construction
(a) Solid tools.
(b) Brazed tools.
(c) Inserted bit tools.
On the Basis of Cutting Tool Material
(a) High speed steel (HSS).
(b) High carbon tool steel (HCS).
(c) Cast alloy.
(d) Cemented carbide.
(f) Boraon Nitride.